Top 10 Interview Questions and Answers: Introduction to Embedded Systems (Basic)

Here we will discuss the Top 10 Interview Questions and Answers on the Introduction of Embedded Systems. This article is perfect for beginners who want to increase their understanding of embedded systems. I believe covering Questions and Answers is the best way to enhance knowledge in any new field.

Q1. What is Embedded System ?

Ans: Embedded system is a programmed hardware device and is basically constructed to solve one type of specific problem and has only limited resources such as RAM, I/O console, etc. available based on the requirements of such problem. In simple terms, here, requirements/specific problems dictate the characteristics of an embedded system.

Q2. What are the practical examples of embedded systems in airplane?

Ans: In Airplane, numerous embedded systems are used for different purposes, such as maintain oxygen level inside the airplane, determine the weather condition, altitude, location, orientation, speed, fuel indicator, autopilot feature, etc. These features significantly help the pilot by reducing the workload and prevent any other human error.

Q3. What are the other applications of embedded systems?

Ans: Other embedded systems applications include Robotics, Security Devices, Access Control (e.g., RFID), Home Appliances, Automobiles, Manufacturing Industries, Nuclear Power Plants, etc.

Q4. What are the constraints of embedded systems employed in airplane?

Ans:Below are the some constrains:

  • Security: It should be secure. Nobody can access the control system of an airplane without proper privileges. Passengers cannot interfere with/access any control system, which may cause problems for pilots.
  • Reliability: It should be reliable. 0.0000000000001% of error in any sensor output also may result in numerous accidents and human life loss. Ideally, the probability of mistake/wrong results by the embedded systems employed in airplanes should be zero.

Q5. Is Internet of Things (IoT) devices also example of embedded systems?

Ans: Yes, IoT devices also consider as a example of embedded systems.

Q6. What should be the characteristics of IoT devices?

Ans: We are listing some characteristics of IoT devices:

  • run on very little energy (energy efficient)
  • difficult reverse engineering
  • secure from unauthenticated physical and logical access
  • reliable: always function correctly without error
  • data segregation by using machine learning algorithms
  • reactive in nature (waits for some input, then gives output)

Q7. What is the basic system model of embedded system?

Ans: Basic system model constituents are inputs (given by sensors), computation involved by processing elements (based on inputs), and resultant output (by actuators).

Q8. How can we measure overall efficiency of embedded system?

Ans: Overall efficiency of embedded system based on the following factors:

  • Energy efficiency: It is a simple measure of specific work performed by the system against the process's energy consumed. Example: Processor's energy efficiency is the number of instructions executed per joule of energy.
  • Code Size: Lines of code (code size)  used for programming embedded systems are kept in the system. So, code should occupy minimal space, and at the same time, it should be secure.
  • Portability: the embedded system should be portable and not occupy more space depends on the application
  • Cost: It should be cost-effective
  • Real-time constraint: It should meet real-time constraints such as quality output within very little time, less prone to error, etc.

Q9. What are the different phases of development of embedded systems?

Ans: Below are the different phases of development of embedded systems:

  1. Idea: Development of embedded system starts with an answer/idea of some specific problem.
  2. Specification: Many mind-storming sessions happen during this phase to collect the specification that solves the problem. It ends with the listing of hardware and software components required for the development of the system.
  3. Repository: While development, the repository has been created for proper versioning control (to roll back if something wrong happens).
  4. Iteration: Internal Testing and redevelopment based on test case results until the development team satisfies the system.
  5. Evaluation: Evaluation may be done by an internal or external team based on specifications developed in the initial phase.
  6. Validation: Validation is generally audit by an external team to confirm the efficiency of an embedded system.
  7. Optimization: Based on the results in different phases, optimization has been done to increase an embedded system's efficiency.

Q10. What are the different design models for the development of embedded system?

Ans: Like software development, there are different design models for developing embedded systems such as waterfall model (requirements freeze before development), iterative model (simple implementation first and later increase complexity and features in a later stage), etc.

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